Here is a brief overview of some of the individuals who contributed to the revolution in physics and psychology.
THE REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS & PSYCHOLOGY
X-rays & radiation
On November 8, 1895, a German physicist named Wilhelm Roentgen accidentally discovered x-rays. He placed a vacuum tube with a wire attached to each end inside a black box, creating a discharge tube. He turned the lights off in the lab and turned on the electrical current with a very high voltage across the tube. A short distance away he noticed a glowing fluorescent light. Roentgen did not know the origin of these rays, therefore he called them “x-rays.” As he continued experimenting on these rays, he discovered that the rays could penetrate books and wood. He concluded that these “x-rays” where from the discharge tube. When the discovery of x-rays was announced, stories and poems were published in magazines and newspapers. X-rays are used in many ways, such as in medicine ( CAT scans and MRI’s), industry, science, etc. X-rays also have dangers and side effects such as cancer, skin burns, hair loss, and other serious conditions due to the extremely high voltage.
In 1902, Ernest Rutherford discovered that at least two types of radiation existed. He labeled these types of radiation alpha particles and beta particles. Rutherford also discovered that radiation was caused by the disintegration of atoms and suggested that immense stores of energy were present within atoms. In 1911, he announced his version of the structure of the atom. He proved that the atom has a very small, tightly packed, charged nucleus. With all of Rutherford’s contributions and discoveries in science and radiation, he was president of the Royal Society, rece…
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…ating force in human life. This causes compensatory mechanisms that result in self-centered neurotic attitudes. Rank came up with a theory of neurosis, indicating all neurotic disturbances to the trauma of birth.
The psychoanalytic movement affected work in psychology, sociology, anthropology, religious studies, history, and literary theory.
– Kagan, Donald. The Western Heritage Brief Edition Vol. II: Since 1648. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 1996.