A scientist for one of the Water Management Districts near Victoria conducts a study of the effects of industrial wastewater on marine clams (animals that are sessile as adults) by comparing the density and reproductive condition of clams collected within 100 m of a discharge pipe with those collected 10 km away. He found very low densities of clams near the pipe and those that were there had very small gonads. You have been hired by the company discharging wastewater via this pipe to explain why these data should not be used to shut you down. What scientific arguments are you going to make to the review board? Hint: don’t talk about study design issues….tell me about what other ecological factors might be at play here.